Hofstede’s Six Dimensions
According to Greert Hofstede “culture is the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from another. The category can refer to nations, regions within or across nations, ethnicities, religions, occupations, organizations, or the genders”.Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a context for multicultural communication. It defines the effects of s society’s culture in the beliefs of its members, and how these beliefs relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.
1- Power distance ( PDI)
Refers to the way in which power is distributed and the extent to which the less powerful accept that power is distributed unequally. For instance, China has a score of 80 power distance whereas Brazil has score a 69.
2- Individualism and collectivism ( IDV)
Individualism: People taking care of themselves, self-orientation, individual goals and everyone has a right to private life with “I” mentality. For example, the UAE has 25of individualism while US has of individualism.
Collectivism: Loyal to group, Care of family, communities, mentality country with “We” mentality. For example, Korea is very loyal to their families and fellow members and people feel a sense of obligation not just to their immediate. For instance, Germany can be considered as individualistic with a relatively high score (67) on the scale of Hofstede compared to a country like Guatemala where they have strong collectivism (6 on the scale).
3- Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
It is a state wherein results and conditions are unknown or changeable. Moreover, uncertainty avoiding cultures try to reduce the possibility of such circumstances by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; ‘there can only be one Truth and we have it’. For example, the UAE has a score of 80 in uncertainty avoidance while Australia has a score of 57.
4- Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)
Masculinity: is the trait which emphasize ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. It is greater focus on the quality of life, relationships and elements of life. Femininity: is the trait which stress caring and nurturing behaviors, sexuality equality. Environment awareness and more fluid gender roles. For example, France has a lower percent of masculinity which is 43, but Japan has a higher percent which is 95.
5- Long term orientation vs. short term orientation (LTO)
In Long term orientation people prepare for future. Also, they have ability to adapt traditions in changed condition, and they have perseverance in achieving result. For example, Iran has a sore 14 in long term orientation, and Canada has a score of 36. But, In short term orientation the tradition and norms are more important. In addition, people in short term orientation focus on achieving quick results instead of long term orientation.
6- Indulgence vs. restraint (IND)
Indulgence stands for a society that lets relatively free gratification of basic and natural human pushes related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and controls it by means of strict social norms. Restraint stands for a society that defeats enjoyment of needs and controls it by means of strict social rules. For instance, Australia has a score 71 in indulgence vs. restraint while Malaysia has a score of 57.
Salma Ahmed – H00283751
Alyazi Helal – H00283271
Fatima Yousuf – H00256657
Manal Jassem – H00284191
WRITE H or L next to these descriptors
1) Strong sense of insiders and outsiders H
2) Specific information exists L
3) Informal L
4) Team and family activities preferred H
5) Focus on results L
6) Transparency expected L
7) A lot of confidential information H
8) Rules and regulations are easily accessible L
9) Close personal relationships H
10) General information H
11) Elders/authoritative figures in control H
12) “Have a go at it” philosophy L
13) Individual responsibility L
14) Concerned about ‘losing’ face. H
15) Expertise valued L
16) Who you know is important H
17) Focus on task H
18) Emphasis on words and text L
19) Strong sense of family H
20) What you know is important L
21) Gender roles clearly defined H
22) Polite people admired H
23) Reserved H
24) Individual freedom valued L
25) Strong sense of honour H
26) Short term relationships L
27) Process more important than product H
28) Privacy (even when dealing with one’s own family) highly valued H
29) Public admission of wrongdoing expected. H
30) Strong sense of respect H
31) Better response to visual information
32) Gender roles less fixed L
33) No direct eye contact H
34) Strong sense of fairness L
35) Verbal agreements H
36) Values logic over feeling L
37) Very rare marriage with outsiders H
38) Clear division of responsibilities at work L
39) Written contracts L
40) Public criticism insulting H
Choose from three of the sentences in the document that represent you personality and explain why:
1- Team work preferred
Personally, I prefer to work with in group because if I want to achieve my organization’s goals, I have to build a strong relationship with my group members which leads to share ideas, divide work equally between us, improve skills, learn new tasks and get experience to solve difficult problems. Moreover, I can get feedback from them to improve my weakness.
2- Direct communication
I love to communicate directly with my family, friends and people to avoid misunderstanding and problems could happen. Also, to avoid gossiping which lead to be in problems and embarrassing situation.
3- Strong sense of family
I love to take care of my family such as brothers, sisters, nephew and nice especially when my mother traveled abroad to visit her family. I cook for them until she returns. The most important person in my family is my mother. Moreover, I look after her medicine, go shopping, watching TV, attend medical appointment with her and discussing in everything which related to family’s issue. Also, I make sure to keep a bottle of water in her room and open it little bit to be easier when she drinks.
4- Rules and regulations
I strongly agree that people should follow the rules, regulations or policies and procedures. Added to that, by following the rules the life will be easy without any problem, to be success and achieve you life’s goal. I am very organized, punctual, on time and finish my work step by step and on time which leads me to follow the rules, and it is part of my personality.
2- Leader: it is allowed to use UAE’s leaders in advertisements.
3- food: it is not allowed to put pig in pictures.
4- Drinks: Al cohols is forbidden and it is against Islam.
2- In my opinion, it is about build relationship between Japanese business man and American business woman. Moreover, in some cultures people prefer to build long relationship like to meet and to have dinner outside the work. However, there are another cultures would like to build short term relation ship which is avoid meeting outside office. In American culture time is making money and “yesterday” means to finish work quickly.
3- In my opinion, it is not good when they talked about the work during their dinner party because all of them met to have dinner and fun. Also, business meeting or talking about work should be done in the office.
4- I agree with him. He should make this new rule which will lead all employees to be on time. Moreover, to achieve their goals and to be successful in their organization they have to be on time.
5- I dissatisfied from her work because she was very late to send email. Also, to be punctual in the company is very important because if you delay to send emails, you will lead your company to lose reputation. Moreover, being on time, punctual and committed are very important manners should be available in all employees to complete their work effectively and to achieve organization’s goals.
6- In my opinion , it will be normal manner if I use it only to wipe my hands. Moreover, I think most of people use hot towel to clean their hands only. Besides that, using it to wipe face is not acceptable in some cultures.