Hofstede’s Six Dimensions
According to Greert Hofstede “culture is the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from another. The category can refer to nations, regions within or across nations, ethnicities, religions, occupations, organizations, or the genders”.Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a context for multicultural communication. It defines the effects of s society’s culture in the beliefs of its members, and how these beliefs relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.
1- Power distance ( PDI)
Refers to the way in which power is distributed and the extent to which the less powerful accept that power is distributed unequally. For instance, China has a score of 80 power distance whereas Brazil has score a 69.
2- Individualism and collectivism ( IDV)
Individualism: People taking care of themselves, self-orientation, individual goals and everyone has a right to private life with “I” mentality. For example, the UAE has 25of individualism while US has of individualism.
Collectivism: Loyal to group, Care of family, communities, mentality country with “We” mentality. For example, Korea is very loyal to their families and fellow members and people feel a sense of obligation not just to their immediate. For instance, Germany can be considered as individualistic with a relatively high score (67) on the scale of Hofstede compared to a country like Guatemala where they have strong collectivism (6 on the scale).
3- Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI)
It is a state wherein results and conditions are unknown or changeable. Moreover, uncertainty avoiding cultures try to reduce the possibility of such circumstances by strict laws and rules, safety and security measures, and on the philosophical and religious level by a belief in absolute Truth; ‘there can only be one Truth and we have it’. For example, the UAE has a score of 80 in uncertainty avoidance while Australia has a score of 57.
4- Masculinity vs. femininity (MAS)
Masculinity: is the trait which emphasize ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. It is greater focus on the quality of life, relationships and elements of life. Femininity: is the trait which stress caring and nurturing behaviors, sexuality equality. Environment awareness and more fluid gender roles. For example, France has a lower percent of masculinity which is 43, but Japan has a higher percent which is 95.
5- Long term orientation vs. short term orientation (LTO)
In Long term orientation people prepare for future. Also, they have ability to adapt traditions in changed condition, and they have perseverance in achieving result. For example, Iran has a sore 14 in long term orientation, and Canada has a score of 36. But, In short term orientation the tradition and norms are more important. In addition, people in short term orientation focus on achieving quick results instead of long term orientation.
6- Indulgence vs. restraint (IND)
Indulgence stands for a society that lets relatively free gratification of basic and natural human pushes related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and controls it by means of strict social norms. Restraint stands for a society that defeats enjoyment of needs and controls it by means of strict social rules. For instance, Australia has a score 71 in indulgence vs. restraint while Malaysia has a score of 57.
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